A GIS-based application for documenting and analysing perceptions about language variation

  1. Xulio Sousa
  2. Soraya Suárez
  3. Rosa M. Crujeiras
  4. Laura Calaza

ISSN: 2013-2247

Ano de publicación: 2020

Número: 24

Páxinas: 177-203

Tipo: Artigo

Outras publicacións en: Dialectologia


This article presents PDMapping, a new tool developed to assist the collecting and processing of data in research projects in Perceptual Dialectology. It allows information to be stored in a structured database and processed easily using either quantitative analysis-based statistical software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS). After presenting the background for development of PDMapping, we will explain how it works, show examples of it in use and provide some useful tips for using the application in other perceptual dialectology projects. Although specifically designed for an ongoing study based on a dialect identification task, PDMapping is easily adapted to other perceptual dialectology studies. The tool is available to the research community in an open source code repository andalso in a demonstration web version on the project’s website.

Información de financiamento

This work was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad [FFI2015-65208-P], European Regional Development Fund (multiannual financial framework 2014-2020]) and the Xunta de Galicia (TecAnDali research network, [ED341D R2016/011]).


Referencias bibliográficas

  • ALBURY, N. J. (2017) “How folk linguistic methods can support critical sociolinguistics”, Lingua, 199, 36-49. doi:0.1016/j.lingua.2017.07.008.
  • BADDELEY, A., Y. M., CHANG, SONG & R. TURNER (2012) “Nonparametric estimation of the dependence of a spatial point process on spatial covariates”, Statistics and its Interface, 5(2), 221-236. < https://dx.doi.org/10.4310/SII.2012.v5.n2.a7>
  • BAKER, W., D. EDDINGTON & L. NAY, L. (2009) “Dialect identification: The effects of region of origin and amount of experience”, American Speech, 84(1), 48-71. doi.org/10.1215/00031283- 2009-004.
  • CALAZA DÍAZ, L. (2017) “Lingüística matemática: a información que se esconde tras as percepcións”, in M. I. Borrajo, G. Castiñeira, L. López & V. Sanmartín (eds.), Actas do Seminario de Iniciación á Investigación. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto de Matemáticas-USC, 75-80. <http://www.usc.es/export9/sites/webinstitucional/gl/institutos/matematicas/descargas /ActasSII_2016_2017.pdf> (accessed 3 January 2019).
  • CALAZA DÍAZ, L., S. SUÁREZ QUINTAS, R. M. CRUJEIRAS, A. RODRÍGUEZ CASAL, X. SOUSA & J. R. RÍOS VIQUEIRA (2015) “A method for processing perceptual dialectology data”, in M. J. Ginzo Villamayor, J. M. Alonso Meijide & L. Ramil Novo (eds.), ACTAS XII Congreso Galego de Estatística e Investigación de Operacións. Lugo: Servizo de Publicacións da Deputación Provincial de Lugo – SGAPEIO, 282-291. Retrieved from <http://eio.usc.es/pub/mjginzo/descargas/XII_SGAPEIO.pdf> (accessed 5 December 2018).
  • CHAMBERS, J. K. & P. TRUDGILL (1980) Dialectology, Cambridge: University Press.
  • CLOPPER, C. G. & A. R. BRADLOW (2009) “Free Classification of American English Dialects by Native and Non-Native Listeners”, Journal of Phonetics, 37(4), 436-51. doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2009.07.004.
  • CLOPPER, C. G. & D. B. PISONI (2004) “Some Acoustic Cues for the Perceptual Categorization of American English Regional Dialects”, Journal of Phonetics, 32(1), 111-140. doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(03)00009-3.
  • CLOPPER, C. G. & D. B. PISONI (2006) “Effects of Region of Origin and Geographic Mobility on Perceptual Dialect Categorization”, Language Variation and Change, 18(2), 193-221.
  • CONWAY, J., D. EDDELBUETTEL, T. NISHIYAMA, S. KUMAR PRAYAGA & N. TIFFIN (2017) RPostgreSQL: R Interface to the 'PostgreSQL' Database System. R package version 0.6-2. https://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=RPostgreSQL.
  • CRAMER, J. & C. MONTGOMERY (eds.) (2016) Cityscapes and Perceptual Dialectology: Global Perspectives on Non-Linguists Knowledge of the Dialect Landscape, Berlin / Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
  • CRAMER, J. (2010) The Effect of Borders on the Linguistic Production and Perception of Regional Identity in Louisville, Kentucky, Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois dissertation. <https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/18426/Cramer_Jennifer.pdf?sequence=1> (accessed 3 September 2018).
  • CRAMER, J. (2016) “Perceptual Dialectology”, in Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935345.013.60.
  • CUKOR-AVILA, P., B. E. EVANS, L. JEON, D. LONG, C. MONTGOMERY, D. R. PRESTON & P. STOECKLE (2012) “A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) approach to Perceptual Dialectology data”, Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 41, Indiana University.
  • EVANS, B. E. (2011) “Seattletonian to Faux Hick: Mapping perceptions of English in WA”, American Speech 86(4), 383-413.
  • EVANS, B. E. (2013) “Seattle to Spokane: Mapping Perceptions of English in Washington State”, Journal of English Linguistics, 41(3), 268-291. doi: 10.1177/0075424213494822.
  • FERNÁNDEZ REI, F. (1990) Dialectoloxía da lingua galega, Vigo: Xerais.
  • GROOTAERS, W. (1959) “Origin and Nature of the Subjective Boundaries of Dialects”, Orbis, 8(2), 355-384.
  • JEON, L. & P. CUKOR-AVILA (2016) “Urbanicity and language variation and change: Mapping dialect perceptions in and of Seoul”, in J. Cramer & C. Montgomery (eds.), Cityscapes and Perceptual Dialectology: Global Perspectives on Non-Linguists Knowledge of the Dialect Landscape, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 97-116. doi: 10.1515/9781614510086-011.
  • JEON, L. (2012) Drawing boundaries and revealing language attitudes: Mapping perceptions of dialects in Korea, Master’s Thesis. Denton: University of North Texas.
  • JONES Z., Q. YAN, L. WAGNER & C. CLOPPER (2017) “The development of dialect classification across the lifespan”, Journal of Phonetics, 60, 20-37. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2016.11.001.
  • KENDALL, T. & V. FRIDLAND (2015) “Mapping the perception of linguistic form: Dialectometry with perception data”, in J. Nerbonne, M.-H. Côté & R. Knooihuizen (eds.), The Future of Dialects, Berlin: Language Science Press, 173-194. doi:10.17169/langsci.b81.149.
  • LANSLEY, G. & J. CHESHIRE (2016) An Introduction to Spatial Data Analysis and Visualisation in R. CDRC Learning Resources. <https://data.cdrc.ac.uk/tutorial/an-introduction-to-spatialdata-analysis-and-visualisation-in-r> (accessed 3 January 2018).
  • LAWRENCE, Daniel (2015) “Phonetic Variation as a Cue to Regional Identity: An Experimental Approach”, York Papers in Linguistics, Special Issue 2, 42-63.
  • LONG, D. & Y-C. YIM (2002) “Regional differences in the perception of Korean dialects”, in D. Long & D. R. Preston (eds.), Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, vol. 2, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 249-275.
  • LONG, D. (1999) “Geographical Perception of Japanese Dialect Regions”, in D. R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, vol. 1, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 117-198.
  • MONTGOMERY, C. & P. STOECKLE (2013) “Geographical Information Systems and Perceptual Dialectology”, Journal of Linguistic Geography, 1(1), 52-85. doi:10.1017/jlg.2013.4.
  • MONTGOMERY, C. (2010) “Sprachraum and its perception”, in A. Lameli, R. Kehrein & S. Rabanus (eds.), An international handbook of linguistic variation. Volume 2: Language mapping, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 586-606.
  • MONTGOMERY, Chris (2011) “Starburst Charts: Methods for Investigating the Geographical Perception of and Attitudes towards Speech Samples”, Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, 7. <http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/07/montgomery/index.html.>
  • ONISHI, I. & D. LONG (1997) Perceptual Dialectology Quantifier (PDQ) for Windows. <http://nihongo.hum.tmu.ac.jp/~long/maps/perceptmaps.htm> (accessed 3 January 2018).
  • PLICHTA, B. & D. R. PRESTON (2005) “The /Ay/s Have It: The Perception of /Ay/ as a North-South Stereotype in United States English”, Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 37(1), 107-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/03740463.2005.10416086.
  • PRESTON, D. R. & G. M. HOWE (1987) “Computerized Studies of Mental Dialect Maps”, in K. M. Denning, S. Inkelas, J. R. Rickford & F. McNair-Knox (eds.), Variation in Language: NWAVXV at Stanford (Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation), Stanford CA: Department of Linguistics, Stanford University, 361-378.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (1981) “Perceptual dialectology: Mental maps of United States dialects from a Hawaiian perspective (summary)”, in H. Warkentyne (ed.), Methods IV/Méthodes IV (Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Methods in Dialectology), [Victoria]: University of Victoria British Columbia, 192-198.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (1989) Perceptual dialectology: nonlinguists’ views of areal linguistic, Dordrecht: Foris.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (ed.) (1999) Handbook of perceptual dialectology, vol. 1, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (2010a) “Language, space, and the folk”, in P. Auer & J. Schmidt (eds.), Theories and methods (Language and space: An international handbook of language variation, volume 1, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 179-201.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (2010b) “Perceptual Dialectology in the 21st Century”, in C. A. Anders, M. Hundt & A. Lasch (eds.), Perceptual Dialectology. Neue Wege der Dialektologie (Linguistik – Impulse & Tendenzen), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1-30.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (2011a) “The power of language regard – discrimination, classification, comprehension, and production”, Dialectologia, Special Issue, II, 9-33. <http://www.publicacions.ub.edu/revistes/dialectologiaSP2011/>
  • PRESTON, D. R. (2011b) “Methods in (applied) folk linguistics: Getting into the minds of the folk”, AILA Review 24, 15-39. doi:10.1075/aila.24.02pre.
  • PRESTON, D. R. (2017) “The cognitive foundations of language regard”, Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 53(1), 17-42. doi: 10.1515/psicl-2017-0002.
  • PURSCHKE, C. (2011) “Regional Linguistic Knowledge and Perception: On the conceptualization of Hessian”, Dialectologia, Special Issue 2, 91-118. <http://www.publicacions.ub.edu/revistes/dialectologiaSP2011/>
  • QGIS DEVELOPMENT TEAM (2019). QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. <http://qgis.osgeo.org>.
  • R CORE TEAM. (2018) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. <http://www.R-project.org/> (accessed 5 December 2017).
  • RENSINK, W. G. ([1955] 1999) “Informant Classification of Dialects”, reprinted in D. R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, vol. 1, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 3-7.
  • RUMPF, J., S. PICKL, S. ELSPAß, W. KÖNIG & V. SCHMIDT (2010) “Quantification and Statistical Analysis of Structural Similarities in Dialectological Area-Class Maps”, Dialectologia et Geolinguistica, 18, 73-98.
  • SIBATA, T. ([1959] 1999) “Consciousness of Dialect Boundaries”, reprinted in D. R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, vol. 1, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 39-62.
  • SOUSA, X. (2006) “Análise dialectométrica das variedades xeolingüística galegas”, in C. Rolão Bernardo & H. Mateus Montenegro (eds.), Encontro de estudos dialectológicos. Actas, Ponta Delgada: Instituto Cultural de Ponta Delgada, 345-362.
  • SUÁREZ QUINTAS, S. (2017) “O galego non é o ghallegho que falamos nós: a percepción e as actitudes como condicionantes do cambio lingüístico”, in X. L. Regueira Fernández & E. Fernández Rei (eds.), Estudos sobre o cambio lingüístico no galego actual. Santiago de Compostela: Consello da Cultura Galega Instituto da Lingua Galega, 187-213. <http://consellodacultura.gal/mediateca/extras/CCG_2017_Estudos-sobre-o-cambiolinguistico-no-galego-actual.pdf> (accessed 5 December 2017).
  • WILLIAMS A., P. GARRET & N. COUPLAND (1999) “Dialect Recognition”, in D. R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, Vol. 1, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 345-358.