Spatial propagation and characterization of quantum states of light in integrated photonic devices

  1. Barral Raña, David
Dirigida por:
  1. Jesús Liñares Beiras Director
  2. Vicente Moreno de las Cuevas Codirector

Universidad de defensa: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Fecha de defensa: 06 de noviembre de 2015

  1. José Rodríguez García Presidente/a
  2. Carlos Montero Orille Secretario
  3. Pedro Chamorro Posada Vocal
  4. María Elena López Lago Vocal
  5. José Enrique Alvarellos Bermejo Vocal
  1. Departamento de Física Aplicada

Tipo: Tesis


In this dissertation we introduce a quantum theory of propagation of light in integrated photonic devices. The necessity of this theory is justified due to the conceptual and formal inconsistencies the Hamiltonian theory presents when dealing with propagation problems. Taking into account the orthonormalization property and the modal norms, we carry out a canonical quantization of the flux of Momentum and derive Heisenberg equations. We apply it to coupling devices with different features of the refractive index: inhomogeneities, nonlinear response and losses; like N × N linear and nonli- near directional couplers and spontaneous parametric down conversion and spontaneous four wave mixing-based nonlinear inhomogeneous waveguides. Likewise, we introduce the optical field-strength space and the amplitude probability distributions in this representation, and by means of a spatial- type Lagrangian theory we derive by path integration propagators in this space for different-media based devices. In this way we solve the propagation for discrete and continuous variables. Next, we present a new method of characterization of quantum states introducing a generalized quantum polarization, based on the confinement in particular regions of the optical field space of the probability distributions of quantum states. Likewise, we propose a consistent polarization degree, a figure which measures how different a state is from a full unpolarized one, showing its application to the characterization of various examples of stationary and dynamic quantum states. The last aim of this dissertation is to measure quantum states of light propagating in integrated photonic devices. We designe a versatile and relia- ble electro-optic integrated device to accomplish this goal. This device allows carrying out any SU(2) unitary transformation and is able to be nested as well, allowing its extension to SU(N) transformations. Likewise, it outper- forms other current schemes based on pasive directional couplers due to its ability to reduce the effect produced by fabrication errors, a very important fact when complex circuits are involved. We perform simulations and show possible applications. In summary, in this thesis we develop tools to design and simulate the performance of photonic devices, as well as propose a characterization me- thod for quantum states propagating within, with interest in the conti- nuously growing field of integrated quantum photonics.